Tile Roofing Contractor

Concrete Tile

For over twenty-years as a tile roofing contractor in Arizona, we know tile roof underlayment for clay and concrete roofs. Triangle Roofing Company in metro Phoenix uses 90lbs UV rated mineral cap for protection of the No-40 tile underlayment.


Triangle Roofing Company



Triangle Roofing Company Phoenix Arizona Tile Roofing Contractor


Roofing Contractor

Phoenix Roofing

Tile Underlayment

Clay Tile


Concrete roof tiles we use are made of portland cement, sand and water in varying proportions. The material is mixed and extruded on molds under high pressure. The exposed surface of a tile may be finished with cementitious material colored with synthetic oxide additives. The roofing tiles are cured to reach the required strength. They generally have lugs on their undersides for anchoring to batten strips. There are additional water locks or interlocking ribs on the longitudinal edges that impede movement and prevent water infiltration.

As with clay roof tiles, there are a wide variety of profiles, styles, finishes and colors available. Color may be added to the surface of a tile or dispersed throughout (color through). Special southwest texture may be added in surface treatment. In addition, each tile type may have separate field, ridge, hip, gable and terminal tiles that are various shapes.

Recommends tile systems be applied over continuous wood decking. When plywood is used, We recommend the use of a minimum 5/8 thick nominal exterior-grade plywood.

Caution should be exercised when decks are

constructed out of the following materials:

  1. 1.• Oriented strand board (OSB): Be concerned with potential fastener-holding problems and dimensional stability because of the effects of moisture where OSB and other non-veneer products are used as decking.

  2. 2.• Preservative-treated wood: Many tile material manufacturers recommend wood decks be constructed with wood that has been treated with a non-oil preservative pressure treatment or with non-treated air- or kiln-dried lumber.

  3. 3.• Fire-retardant-treated wood: Because of the deterioration of some fire-retardant-treated wood panels caused by chemical reaction, special care should be given to investigate the use of fire-retardant-treated wood panel decks.

For some types of roof tiles, batten and counter-batten systems are used to hang roof tiles that has head lugs. Battens are spaced according to the length and exposure of the specified roof tile. Battens should be fastened to the deck with 8d common, galvanized, corrosion-resistant nails at approximately 12 inches on center.

Clay roof tiles are produced by baking molded clay. The density of the clay is determined by the length of time and temperature at which it is heated. Tiles may be glazed and also may have surface texture treatments applied. As a result, there are a wide variety of roof tiles profiles, styles, finishes and colors available. In addition, each roof tile may have separate field, ridge, hip, gable and terminal roof tiles of various shapes. Installation methods depend on the nature of the roof tile being installed; that is, whether it is two piece, one piece, interlocking or flat roof tile. 

Tile underlayment (or "felt paper" as it is frequently called) is installed over the deck before the application of roof tile. Tile underlayment performs two primary functions: it provides temporary weather protection until the roofing tile is installed, and it provides a secondary weatherproofing barrier if moisture infiltrates the roof tile covering. Many roofing tiles have outlived the underlayment felts over which they were installed. Therefore, the roof tile underlayment's service life-cycle should be comparable to the design service life of the roofing tile covering.

Asphalt saturated, non-perforated organic tile felts are among the most common tile underlayments; they commonly are designated as Type 15 and Type 30 or referred to as No. 15 and No. 30, which are reflective of a once used pound per square weight designation. The terms Type I and Type II now are used within the industry in lieu of No. 15 or No. 30, respectively. As a Phoenix roofing contractor we do not recommend the use of type 1 or 2.

Another type of roofing tile underlayment is a synthetic roof tile underlayment. It is characterized as being lightweight, water-resistant and less likely to wrinkle; having high tear strength; and being easy to walk on—even when wet. Theoretically, the main issue is the product can’t be left exposed to the elements for extended periods of time. Although synthetic roof tile underlayments and their purported attributes seem appealing especially in Hurricane areas, there are significant issues to consider before using them. To date, there are no applicable ASTM standards for these products. Many synthetic tile underlayments do not meet current building code requirements, so manufacturers need to obtain a contractor code evaluation report for local code compliance.

As an Arizona Triangle roofing contractor, we recommend a minimum of two layers of No. 40 asphalt-saturated tile felt applied horizontally in shingle fashion and one layer 90lbs mineral cap for UV protection on roof decks having a slope of 10:12 (40 degrees) or more. For roof decks having slopes of 4:12 (18 degrees) up to 10:12 (40 degrees), Triangle Roofing recommends a minimum of one layer No. 40 asphalt-saturated underlayment and one layer 90lbs mineral cap that has 20 year UV protection should be applied horizontally in shingle fashion. (18 degrees)

As a general rule by a Arizona tile roofing contractor where the average temperature for January is 30º F or less, We suggest installation of an ice-dam protection membrane. An ice-dam protection membrane maximum roofing tile underlayment protection generally is a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen membrane.

Recommended by a Phoenix roofing contractor in low-slope applications to use ice dame protection for homes in the higher elevations of the metro Phoenix area and statewide Arizona if your business is in a freeze zone.

Ice dam protection should be applied starting at a roof's eaves and extending upslope a minimum of 24 inches from the exterior wall line of a building. For slopes less than 4:12 (18 degrees), We recommends a minimum of 36 inches. See Figure 1.

Figure 1 - example of ice damming

Securement Methods

A quality tile roofing contractor will use many different types and combinations of securement methods are used for the various types of tile. To select a method of securement, many conditions need to be considered: wind, deck type, seismic considerations, slope, building codes, local practices and manufacturer recommendations. Fasteners should be made of noncorrosive materials that will remain serviceable in the intended environment for the roof's design life.

  1. 1.• Nails—Nailing is the most common method. Nails should be 11- gauge or 12-gauge galvanized steel or the equivalent corrosion-resistant nails. Nail heads should be low-profile, smooth and flat. Shanks should be barbed or otherwise deformed for added pull-out strength. Nails should be long enough to penetrate through all layers of roofing materials and extend through the underside of the roof deck or penetrate at least ¾ inch into wood plank or board decks.

  2. 2.• Wire tie and strapping systems—Hanging tile with wire is used on non nail-able decks, insulated decks or where fastening through metal flashings needs to be avoided.

  3. 3.• Clips—nose or butt clips sometimes are used in conjunction with other attachment methods in high-wind or seismic areas.

  4. 4.• Lug-hung-tile— Many types of tile have formed undersides near their heads that may be hung over a batten. Lug hanging tile usually is used in combination with other securement methods.

  5. 5.• Bedding Tile—Laying the tile in a bed of mortar of foam adhesive is common in some Phoenix metro areas where freeze/thaw conditions are not encountered. Bedding often is used in combination with other securement methods.


Flashings for roofing tiles fall into four categories: perimeter edge metal, penetrations, valleys and vertical surfaces. See Figure 2.

  1. 1.• Perimeter edge metal-depending on the severity of climate, anticipated rainfall and freeze-thaw cycling, the use of perimeter edge metal should be considered.

  2. 2.• Penetrations-plumbing soil stacks, exhaust vents and pipes are flashed into a tile systems with some type of flat flange that extends around a penetration and is installed under shingles on the upslope of a flange.

  3. 3.• Valleys-valleys that are called "open valleys" are typically lined with sheet metal.

  4. 4.• Vertical surfaces-when a roof system abuts a vertical surface, there are four types of flashing commonly used: apron, step, cricket (or backer) and counter flashing.

Figure 2 - Basic contractor sheet metal roofing flashing components

Apron, step and cricket flashings require some form of counter flashing to cover and protect the top edges from water intrusion. In many cases, the wall covering or cladding material acts as counter flashing. When this does not occur, a metal counter flashing mounted to the vertical surface should be installed. See Figures 3,4 and 5 for examples.

Figure 3 - Example of metal roofing contractor counter flashing inset in masonry mortar joint

Figure 4 - Example of through-wall metal roofing contractor counter flashing embedded in masonry mortar joint

Figure 5 - Example of surface-mount metal roofing contractor counter flashing

For a complete list see our roofing material contractor standards for Carefree, Cave Creek, Fountain Hills, Paradise Valley, Phoenix, Scottsdale and Rio Verde for residential roofing contracting. Contact us for our Arizona statewide commercial roofing contracting standards at info@triangleroofing.com

Our coverings meet American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C1167, "Standard Specification for Clay Roof Tiles."

Triangle Roofing Company Phoenix, Arizona Roofing Contractor License Roc#0219242 and Bonded